Pakistan: Geography                                             

  • The Middle East (or West Asia) sits where Africa, Asia and Europe meet. The countries in the Middle East are all part of Asia. For clarity, they are often shown geographically as a separate landmass.


  • Opinions vary as to what countries make up the modern definition of the Middle East. Some sources consider Armenia and Azerbaijan to be part of the Middle East, while most modern experts consider them to be part of Europe.


  • The same can be said for the island country of Cyprus. For that matter, the African country of Egypt is still thought (by some) to be in the Middle East, as are the northern African countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya that border the Mediterranean Sea.



796,095 sq km


Area Comparative            

Slightly more than five times the size of Georgia, USA

Slightly less than twice the size of California, USA



  • Flat Indus plain in the east

  • Mountains in the north and northwest

  • Balochistan plateau in the west

Natural Resources           

  • Arable land

  • Extensive natural gas reserves

  • Limited petroleum

  • Coal, iron ore, copper, salt and limestone

Natural Hazards                

Frequent earthquakeswhich are occasionally severe especially in the north and west 


Flooding along the Indus after heavy rains—usually in July and August


Environmental Issues     

  • Water pollution from raw sewage

  • Industrial waste and agricultural runoff

  • Limited natural freshwater resources

  • Most of the population doesn’t have potable water

  • Deforestation

  • Soil erosion

  • Desertification


Pakistan: Climate                                                  


Explore the world's climate zones here! Search for Pakistan and discover where each zone listed above is located within the country.


  • The climate of Pakistan is mostly hot and dry desert.


  • The climate is temperate in the northwest.


  • The weather extremes in Pakistan include high and low temperatures, heavy rainfall and flooding.


  • The highest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan is 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) which was recorded in Mohenjo-daro, Sindh on May 26, 2010.


  • The highest rainfall of 620 millimeters (24 inches) was recorded in Islamabad on July 24, 2001. The record-breaking rain fell in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in 100 years.

In 1921, excavations revealed an ancient Indus Valley civilization and the cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (above). The cities were built about 4,500 years ago and thrived for a thousand years.