Colombia: Geography                                        

  • South America, the planet's 4th largest continent, includes 12 countries and 3 major territories.

  • South America contains the massive Amazon River and surrounding basin (the largest tropical rain forest in the world), the toothy-edged Andes Mountains that stretch the entire length of the continent and some of the most diverse landforms on the planet.



 1,138,910 sq km 

Area Comparative                        

Slightly less than twice the size of Texas, US



  • Flat coastal lowlands

  • Central highlands

  • High Andes mountains

  • Eastern lowland plains (llanos)

Natural Resources                       

Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Natural Hazards                            

  • Highlands subject to volcanic eruptions

  • Occasional earthquakes

  • Periodic droughts

Galeras (photo), at an elevation 4,276 meters, is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes. It erupted in 2009 and in 2010.


Environmental Issues                 

Deforestation, soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides, air pollution from vehicle emissions—especially in Bogotá


Colombia: Climate                                            

Explore the world's climate zones here! Search for Colombia and discover where each zone listed above is located within the country.


  • The climate in Colombia is diverse. It has tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and a mountain climate.


  • The climate is tropical along the coast and the eastern plains and cooler in the highlands.


  • The mountain climate is subdivided into tierra caliente (hot land), tierra templada (temperate land), tierra fría (cold land), tierra helada (frozen land) and Páramo.


  • At times the weather of Colombia mirrors the seasons in the northern hemisphere. For example, from March to June, the weather is mild and spring-like, from June to August, the weather is hot and summer-like, from September to Dece
    mber, the weather is cold and autumn-like and from


  •  December to March, the weather is even colder and winter-like.













Coffee farmer inspecting his crop