Mexico: Geography                                                         

Area                                   1,964,375 sq km

Area Comparative             Slightly less than three times the size of Texas, US

Terrain                              High, rugged mountains

                                         Low coastal plains

                                         High plateaus


Natural Resources            Petroleum






                                         Natural gas


Natural Hazards               

  • Tsunamis along the Pacific coast
  • Hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
  • Volcanoes and earthquakes in the center and south

Note on volcanoes:

  • The volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant.
  • Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers.
  • Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City.
  • Other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro and Tacana.

Environmental Issues     

  • Scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities
  • Rural to urban migration
  • Natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast
  • Raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas
  • Deforestation
  • Widespread erosion
  • Desertification
  • Deteriorating agricultural lands
  • Serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US Mexico border
  • Land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

Note: The government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues. 

Mexico: Climate                                                              

Explore the world's climate zones here! Search for Mexico and discover where each zone listed above is located within the country.

Mexico’s climate varies from tropical to desert. It is hot and humid along the coastal plains and drier and more temperate at higher elevations inland (in Guadalajara and Mexico City, for example). As you can guess, the climate of Mexico varies according to altitude. The low-lying coastal areas are typically tropical, hot and humid, but the weather in Mexico City (2,300 meters above sea level), is far more moderate.

Mexico City has pleasant summers and mild winters, with an annual average temperature of 64 °F (18 °C). Seasonal variations in temperature are small, but May is the warmest month of the year and January the coldest—when it is possible to have frost at night.

Mexico City has a high average annual rainfall, most falling in summer. The wettest month is July and the driest month February.


 Xpu-ha Beach Tulum, Mexico